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Issue 5, 2020
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l-Arginine/l-lysine functionalized chitosan–casein core–shell and pH-responsive nanoparticles: fabrication, characterization and bioavailability enhancement of hydrophobic and hydrophilic bioactive compounds

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Abstract

This study aimed at developing novel oral self-assembled delivery systems for the encapsulation, protection, and controlled release of hydrophobic and hydrophilic bioactive compounds based on L-arginine (Arg)- or L-lysine (Lys)-functionalized chitosan–casein nanoparticles (NPs). The assembled casein (CA) was modified by NaOH and used as a template core for affinity binding with hydrophobic curcumin and hydrophilic egg white-derived peptides (EWDP) and then coated with Arg- or Lys-functionalized chitosan (CS) to stabilize the systems via electrostatic interaction. Dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy examination revealed Arg/Lys-CS–CA NPs with the smallest particle size of 110/82 nm, pH-responsive properties, excellent storage stability until 28 days, and spherical shape. The encapsulation efficiency of curcumin and EWDP in the NPs ranged from 81–91%, 35–74% in Arg-CS–CA NPs, and 76–87%, 48–87% in Lys-CS–CA NPs varying with different pH values. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry analysis were conducted to fully characterize the interaction mechanism of Arg/Lys-CS with CA, as well as the NP incorporation with curcumin and EWDP. The in vitro controlled release profile of the core–shell NPs was obtained up to 24 and 48 h for curcumin and EWDP, respectively. The simulated gastrointestinal digestion experiments confirmed that curcumin and EWDP had higher bioaccessibility in Arg/Lys-CS–CA NPs. This work offers a novel approach for producing core–shell and pH-responsive nanocarriers for oral delivery and bioavailability enhancement of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic bioactive compounds.

Graphical abstract: l-Arginine/l-lysine functionalized chitosan–casein core–shell and pH-responsive nanoparticles: fabrication, characterization and bioavailability enhancement of hydrophobic and hydrophilic bioactive compounds

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Supplementary files

Article information


Submitted
01 Jan 2020
Accepted
20 Apr 2020
First published
24 Apr 2020

Food Funct., 2020,11, 4638-4647
Article type
Paper

L-Arginine/L-lysine functionalized chitosan–casein core–shell and pH-responsive nanoparticles: fabrication, characterization and bioavailability enhancement of hydrophobic and hydrophilic bioactive compounds

Z. Du, J. Liu, H. Zhang, Y. Chen, X. Wu, Y. Zhang, X. Li, T. Zhang, H. Xiao and B. Liu, Food Funct., 2020, 11, 4638
DOI: 10.1039/D0FO00005A

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