Vinegar extract ameliorates alcohol-induced liver damage associated with modulation of gut microbiota in mice
Vinegar extract is rich in phenolic compounds, which can prevent free radical-induced diseases. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of vinegar extract on gut microbiota in alcohol-treated mice and their correlation with alcohol-induced liver damage. The results showed that vinegar extract regulated gut microbiota composition and improved intestinal homeostasis through increasing expression levels of ZO-1, occludin, claudin-1, Reg3b, and Reg3g in alcohol-treated mice. In addition, vinegar extract inhibited alcohol-induced production of ROS and inflammatory factors. Moreover, Bacteroidetes and Verrucomicrobia, Akkermansia, and Lactobacilus showed a significant positive correlation with the Reg3b, Reg3g, ZO-1, occludin, and claudin-1 and negative correlation with hepatic inflammation and oxidative stress parameters. However, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Butyricimonas, Parabacteroides, and Bilophila exhibited the opposite effect. The findings suggest that vinegar extract modulates gut microbiota and improves intestinal homeostasis, which can be used as a novel gut microbiota manipulator against alcohol-induced liver damage.