Bombax ceiba (Linn.) calyx ameliorates methylglyoxal-induced oxidative stress via modulation of RAGE expression: Identification of active phytometabolites by GC-MS analysis
Methylglyoxal (MG) is a predominant originator of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). AGEs are complex and heterogeneous compounds, which play a vital role in the development of diabetes-related complications by stimulating oxidative stress and inflammation via acting upon its receptor RAGE. This study examined the effect of Bombax ceiba L. calyx’s aqueous methanol extract (BCCE) on MG induced oxidative stress. The phytometabolites present in BCCE were analyzed using GC-MS mass spectrometry. BCCE was significantly suppressed MG induced ROS production, NADPH oxidase (NOX), and mitochondrial dysfunction in HEK cells. BCCE significantly improved MG induced decrease in antioxidative enzymes; Mn and Cu/Zn-SOD, GSH enzyme levels. Furthermore, the MG induced comprise in the glyoxalase system was restored in BCCE primed HEK cells. BCCE inhibited advanced glycation end (AGEs) product formation in in-vitro analysis and also restrained AGEs-induced RAGE up-regulation in HEK cells. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of antioxidant antiglycation compounds such as myoionisitol, scopoletin, D-Sedo heptulose, succinic acid, xylitol in BCCE, which might largely contribute to the observed effect in our study. This is the first report presenting antioxidative stress and antiglycation activities in B. ceiba calyx and analysis of active phytometabolites. These observations find B. ceiba calyx a potent and promising medicinal food to manage the development of diabetic complications induced due to oxidative stress and AGEs.