1H-NMR based metabolomics reveals the nutrient differences of two kinds of freshwater fish soups before and after simulated gastrointestinal digestion
Soups show diverse health functions, which could be linked to their original nutrient profiles and metabolites derived from digestion. NMR spectroscopy is a robust and rapid method that unveils or identifies the chemical composition of food or food-derived metabolites. In the current study, the 1H-NMR spectroscopy approach was applied to identify the differences in metabolic profiling of two kinds of home-cooked freshwater fish soups (crucian carp and snakehead fish) before and after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. The nutritional profiles of these soups were studied using the 1H-NMR method for the first time. Two metabolomics methods, PCA (Principal Component Analysis) and OPLS-DA (Orthogonal Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis), were used to analyze the data. On the whole, levels of amino acid metabolites such as valine (Val), tyrosine, choline, taurine (Tau) and glycine were higher in the crucian carp soup, whereas higher levels of fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids were found in the snakehead soup. Furthermore, the high content of seven metabolites valine, leucine, EPA C20:5 (PUFA eicosapentaenoic acid), acetic acid, taurine, GPCho (phosphatidylcholine) and creatine showed an upward trend after simulated gastrointestinal digestion. The results demonstrate that the 1H-NMR metabolic profile of different fish soups can shed some light on our understanding of food functional properties and dietary therapy. Furthermore, changes of metabolites in digested fish soups could reveal information about chemical compounds which play important roles in the body.