Microbiota modulation and effects on metabolic biomarkers by orange juice: a controlled clinical trial
The impact of habitual orange juice consumption on microbiota, lipid and glycides metabolism was investigated in a controlled clinical trial. Ten women who had a regular diet without orange juice for 30 days (OJ-free diet), followed by a regular diet plus 300 ml/d orange juice for 60 days (OJ-Diet), and 30 days with regular diet without orange juice (Washout). It was monitoring biochemical and dietary parameters, and blood, urine and stool samples were collected every 30 days until the end of the study. By UHPLC, it was identified hesperidin and naringin metabolites in the urine, and the microbiota composition by r16S RNA in the feces. At the end of OJ-Diet, there was a reduction in glucose (-6.5%), insulin (-33%), insulin resistance (-44%), LDL-C (-16%) and triglycerides (-30%). After the washout, these parameters returned to their initial values. There were no changes in body weight or fat during the experiment time. The intestinal bacteria, Lactobacillus spp., Arkkermansia spp., and Ruminococcus spp., increased after the intervention with orange juice. In addition, it was detected an inverse correlation between these bacterias and glycemia, insulin, HOMA-IR, triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL-C, but direct correlation with HDL-C. In conclusion, orange juice showed a prebiotic effect, modulating the intestinal microbiota while improving glycemia and lipid profile.