Total triterpenoids from the fruits of Chaenomeles speciosa exerted gastroprotective activities on indomethacin-induced gastric damage via modulating microRNA-423-5p-mediated TFF/NAG-1 and apoptotic pathways
Our previous studies have demonstrated that the total triterpenes from the fruits of Chaenomeles speciosa (CSTT) exhibit effective therapeutic effects on gastric ulcer patients and animals. The present aim is to further investigate the mechanisms involved. The results indicated that CSTT could ameliorate IND-induced gastric injury, which was related to promoting IND-damaged GES-1 cell proliferation and migration, improving the IND-damaged rat GBF, ulcer area, inhibition rate and pathologic changes of gastric mucous tissue, increasing the amount of adhered gastric mucus, attenuating the volume and total acidity of the gastric effluents, and augmenting the gastric pH; further studies showed that CSTT obviously downregulated miR-423-5p mRNA, NAG-1 mRNA and protein expression, Bax, Bad, cytosol cytochrome C, Apaf-1, cleaved-caspase-3, and cleaved-caspase-9 protein expression and cytosol cytochrome C concentration, and upregulated TFF1, TFF2 and TFF3 mRNA and protein expression, Bcl-2, Bcl-xl, pro-caspase-3, and pro-caspase-9 protein expression, mitochondrial viability, mitochondrial cytochrome C concentration and Bcl-2/Bax, Bcl-xl/Bad ratios. These findings demonstrated that CSTT protected against IND-induced gastric damage by depressing miR-423-5p expression and modulating the TFF/NAG-1 pathway, which in turn restrained mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis.