Modifications of Urinary Metabolome in Young Women after Cranberry Juice Consumption Were Revealed Using UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap-HRMS-Based Metabolomics Approach
This study was to investigate urinary metabolome modifications in young women after cranberry juice consumption using UHPLC coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). Fifteen female college students were given either cranberry juice or apple juice for three days using a cross-over design. Urine samples were collected before and after juice consumption. Metabolome in urine were analyzed using UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap-HRMS-based metabolomics followed by orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analyses (OPLS-DA). S-plot was used to identify discriminant metabolites. Validated OPLS-DA analyses showed that cranberry juice consumption significantly altered urinary metabolomes. Compared to baseline urines or after apple juice consumption, cranberry juice consumption increased urinary excretion of both exogenous and endogenous metabolites. Tentatively identified exogenous metabolites included quinic acid, coumaric acid, 4-hydroxy-5-(hydroxyphenyl)-valeric acid-O-sulphate, 5-(dihydroxyphenyl)-ϒ-valerolactone sulfate, diphenol glucuronide, 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl propionic acid, 3-(hydroxyphenyl) propionic acid, 4-O-methylgallic acid, trihydroxybenzoic acid and 1,3,5-trimethoxybenzene. Modifications of endogenous metabolites after cranberry juice consumption included increases in homocitric acid, hippuric acid, 3-hydroxy-3-carboxymethyl-adipic acid, (2)3-isopropylmalate, pimelic acid and N-acetyl-L-glutamate 5-semialdehyde. These metabolites may serve as urinary biomarkers of cranberry juice consumption and contribute to bioactivities of cranberries against urinary tract infection.