Adhesion and anti-inflammatory potential of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in sea buckthorn based beverage matrix
TConsumption of probiotic based foods due to their health promoting effects have increased over the years. Hence, the application platforms of the food industries have directed their efforts in development of novel functional probiotic beverages. The presence of dietary phenolics and other beneficial components have made fruit-based matrices more popular for probiotic delivery. However, very few studies till date have evaluated the impact of carrier matrices on the in vivo functionality of probiotic strains with specific biomarkers and targeted towards specific disease conditions. In this study, we investigated the effect of a seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) based, malt supplemented, beverage matrix (SBT+M) on the physiological characteristics of probiotic strain L. rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103) (LR). No significant difference in the autoaggregation and coaggregation rates of LR fortified in SBT+M was observed compared to LR alone. Storage conditions (4°C for 14 days) did not affect the survival and the adhesion potential of LR to HCT116 cell lines. More importantly, this study also determined the protective effect of SBT+M on the in vivo functionality of LR in alleviating LPS induced inflammation in zebra fish (Danio rerio). The results showed that administration with SBT+M+LR significantly blunted the LPS induced colonic damage, evidenced by the decrease in the overall histological and the goblet cell scores compared to the LPS-treated group. The protective effect of SBT+M+LR was higher compared to the effects of SBT+M or LR alone. The colonic expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β) showed a marked decline by 84.7% and 86.5%respectively. The highest expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10 was recorded in the SBT+M+LR treated group (p<0.001). The overall results reveal that administration of SBT+M+LR showed best effects in alleviating the LPS induced intestinal damage compared to the other test groups (SBT+M and LR). These protective effects could be attributed to the phenolic compounds present in the SBT matrix. Our study indicates the contributory role of carrier matrix and merits further investigation as potential therapeutic agent for gastrointestinal inflammation.