Propacin, a coumarinolignoid isolated from durian, inhibits the lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response in macrophages through the MAPK and NF-κB pathways
Durian, known as the king of fruits, is rich in nutrients and bioactive phytochemicals. Propacin is a bioactive coumarinolignoid isolated from durian. In this study, we demonstrated its anti-inflammatory effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 cells and explored the underlying mechanism. Propacin suppressed nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production in LPS-stimulated macrophages significantly by downregulating the mRNA and protein expression of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Moreover, propacin decreased the overexpression of the LPS-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and maintained the mitochondrial integrity in active macrophages. Furthermore, propacin inhibited the translocation of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 subunit into the nucleus and the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), especially JNK and ERK. Collectively, these data indicated that propacin may have the potential to be developed as a novel therapeutic agent for inflammatory-related diseases.