Mild heat combined with lactic acid fermentation: a novel approach for enhancing sulforaphane yield in broccoli puree
This study evaluated for the first time the feasibility of mild preheating treatment of broccoli florets combined with lactic acid bacteria fermentation for enhancing sulforaphane yield in broccoli puree. The optimum preheating condition for in-pack processing of broccoli florets was 3 min treatment at 65 °C increasing sulforaphane yield in broccoli puree by ∼5 times compared to untreated broccoli. Preheating of broccoli florets in-pack (65 °C per 3 min) combined with lactic acid bacteria fermentation further enhanced the sulforaphane content by ∼16 times compared to untreated broccoli. The sulforaphane content of the preheated-fermented puree remained stable (∼94% retention) for two weeks at 4 °C. The results indicate that a combination of judicious heat treatment of broccoli florets with lactic acid bacteria fermentation enables production of safe and high sulforaphane content broccoli products with potential health benefits.