Metabolomics strategy reveals the osteogenic mechanism of yak (Bos grunniens) bone collagen peptides on ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats†
Our previous work demonstrated that yak bone collagen peptides (YBP) possessed excellent osteogenic activity in vitro. However, associations between YBP and osteoporosis were less established, and the positive effect and underlying mechanism of YBP in the treatment of osteoporotic rats in vivo remained unclear. Herein, ovariectomized rats were intragastrically administered with YBP or 17β-estradiol for 12 weeks. Bone turnover markers, bone biomechanical parameters and bone microarchitecture were investigated to identify the specific changes of potential antagonistic effects of YBP on ovariectomized rats. Then, serum samples were analyzed by UPLC/Q-TOF-MS to identify metabolites. The results showed that YBP treatment remarkably altered the content of serum bone turnover markers and prevented the ovariectomy-induced deterioration of bone mechanical and microarchitecture characteristics. A total of forty-one biomarkers for which levels changed markedly upon treatment have been identified based on non-targeted metabolomics. Among them, twenty-one metabolites displayed a downward expression level, while twenty metabolites showed an upward expression level in the YBP group and finally were selected as potential biomarkers. The levels of these biomarkers displayed significant alterations and a tendency to be restored to normal values in YBP treated osteoporotic rats. A systematic network analysis of their corresponding pathways delineated that the protective or recovery effect of YBP on osteoporosis occurred primarily by regulating the amino acid metabolism and lipid metabolism (especially unsaturated fatty acid). Collectively, these findings highlight that such peptides hold promise in further advancement as a natural alternative for functional and health-promoting foods, which could be potentially used in mediated treatment of osteoporosis.