Characterising absorption and health-related properties of phytochemicals extracted from Malaysian palm fruit biomass after oil extraction†
After oil extraction, palm fruit biomass contains abundant water-soluble phytochemicals (PCs) with proven bioactivity in regulating oxidative stress and inflammation (OSI). For optimal bioefficacy following oral consumption, the pharmacokinetic plasma peak (Tmax) should be bio-matched with the onset of OSI, which can be predicted from the Phytochemical Absorption Prediction (PCAP) model and methodology. Predicted absorption and potential for regulation of OSI by measures of total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity and hydrogen peroxide production capacity, were applied to characterise eight extracts from mesocarp fibre and kernel shells of oil-depleted palm fruits. Results indicated post-consumption absorption Tmax ranges of 0.5–12 h and 2–6 h for intake in liquid and solid forms, respectively, and generally high antioxidant activity of the extracts. The research supports that PC extracts of palm fruit biomass have broad potential uses for human health as dietary antioxidants in foods, supplements or functional beverages.