Anti-Alzheimer's disease activity of secondary metabolites from Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge.
Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge is an edible oil tree species peculiar to China and it has long been use as a traditional medicine for enuresis in children. In this study, we have investigated the active components in the X. sorbifolia and eight barrigenol type triterpenoids were isolated and identified. All the isolated compounds were tested for H2O2-induced oxidative stress on human SH-SY5Ycells firstly. Then Y maze, Morris water maze, novel object recognition and passive avoidance test were conducted to evaluate the improving effect of selected compounds with neuroprotective activity on ICV Aβ1-42 mice. Among all the tested compounds, XS-8 exhibited significant protective effects against learning and memory impairments induced by ICV-Aβ1-42. XS-8 treatment significantly altered Aβ-induced hippocampal oxidative defense (increased MDA, nitrite, and decreased SOD, glutathione) and pro-inflammatory levels (increased IL-1β and IL-18). The present study strongly suggested that X. sorbifolia is a promising plant resource for AD use and other neurodegenerative diseases.