Mutual effects of silver nanoparticles and antimony (III)/(V) co-exposed to Glycine max (L.) Merr. in hydroponic system: uptake, translocation, physiochemical responses and potential mechanisms
Antimony (Sb) is a non-necessary metal element to plants which could be largely accumulated by terrestrial plants and potentially invade food chains leading to food safety concern. Considering the redox properties and widespread of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs), the current study attempted to shed light on the mutual effects of Ag NPs and Sb (III)/Sb (V) on their uptake, accumulation, and corresponding biochemical effects in Glycine max (L.) Merr (soybean). The seedling matrix was conducted by batch exposure of Sb (III)/Sb (V) with/or the synthesized Ag NPs (ap. 10 nm). Significant mutual impacts were detected with the co-presence of Ag NPs and Sb on their uptake and translocation in soybean tissues. Ag NPs stimulated the accumulation of Sb (III) in roots while reduced the translocation into leaves. In contrast, the Sb (V) uptake in tissues was improved by the presence of Ag NPs. In addition, combined exposure of Ag NPs with Sb (V) led to significant higher Ag accumulation in tissues compared to other treatments. In comparison to the single treatments, co-exposure of Ag NPs with Sb (V) resulted in higher impacts on the pigment contents, enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation. Whereas, the combination of Ag NPs with Sb (III) led to higher reactive oxygen species (ROS) in roots. The altered accumulation of Ag and Sb in soybeans and corresponding biochemical regulations upon different amendments could be attributed to the synergistically physical-chemical and biological interactions in soybean rhizosphere and tissues. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of nanoparticles interacted with Sb species on their uptake and accumulation in plants which could provide impetus for investigating the bioaccumulation and physiochemical influences mediated by co-exposure of Sb species and engineering nanoparticles (ENPs) in plants.