Layered structure-based materials: challenges and opportunities for radionuclide sequestration
The environmental issues associated with the fast advancement of nuclear energy are of great concern due to the radiological and chemical toxicity of some radionuclides which may be potentially released into the environment in different stages of nuclear fuel cycle. Advanced versatile materials and techniques are thus critically needed to efficiently eliminate radionuclides from environmental media with respect to pollution control and environmental remediation. Recently, plenty of novel layered structure-based materials were ingeniously fabricated and widely applied in radionuclide sequestration from aqueous solutions. Up to now, however, comprehensive categorical summarization with new insights into this topic are still quite limited. Herein, this paper systematically reviewed recent research progress upon new materials with layered structures for radionuclide sequestration or removal. Particular attention was paid to graphene-, MXene-based materials and their composites. Important methodologies for this topic of research, with emphasis on computational and X-ray absorption spectroscopic methods were also discussed. In addition, future challenges and basic research needs about fabricating and utilizing tailored functional materials with layered structures for environment remediation are also given.