Distribution of pesticides in agricultural and urban soils of Brazil: a critical review†
The extensive use of pesticides leads to soil contamination and is harmful to environmental health. Brazil is considered the world's largest consumer of pesticides; however, there is no published review of the distribution and concentration of pesticides in the Brazilian soils. Thus, the objective of this study was to analyze the occurrence of pesticide residues in Brazilian soils through a systematic review of the data obtained from the official records of government agencies and scientific literature. Further, this review aims to estimate the risk quotient using the data extracted from these studies and compare it with the values from current legislation. The studies on pesticides were selected and screened, out of which 21 scientific articles were included in this review. The studies highlighted that 55 pesticides were detected in the soils in Brazil. Of these, 58% belonged to the chemical class of organochlorines and their concentration ranged from 0.0002–1243.68 mg kg−1. DDT (0.00002–1243.68 mg kg−1), HCH (0.00007–962.00 mg kg−1) and diuron (0.0031–4.16 mg kg−1) contributed to highest pesticide concentrations in soil. Residential soils had higher pesticide concentrations and greater risk factors than the agricultural soils. Moreover, 20% of the studies detected mixtures containing more than 10 types of pesticides. This study concluded that the specific scenarios evaluated by the reviewed studies do not reflect the current pesticide use and contamination in Brazil and there is a need for more information related to pesticide contamination in soils.