Fundamentals and perspectives in developing zinc-ion battery electrolytes: A comprehensive review
The development of low-cost and high-safety zinc-ion batteries (ZIBs) has been extensively discussed and reviewed in recent years, but the work on comprehensive discussion and perspective in developing zinc-ion electrolytes is still relatively lacking. Facing with the critical challenges and bottlenecks for practical ZIBs, in fact, their viability critically depends on the development of suitable electrolytes and their practical considerations. In this review, a systematic summary from the basic characteristics of zinc-ion electrolytes with facing issues and optimized strategies, to the fundamental science of electrolyte/electrode interfaces (EEIs), specially in the feasible modifications and advanced characterizations of EEIs, was covered. Due to a lack of consideration of practical issues in major academic researches, we have particularly highlighted this aspect that mainly focuses on the choice of electrolyte system, the dosage of liquid and fluid electrolytes, the status of gel and all-solid electrolytes, together with other concerns related to electrolytes. The final section proposals the significant perspectives in order to guide and promote the development of zinc-ion electrolytes.