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Bridging the immiscibility of an all-fluoride fire extinguishant with highly-fluorinated electrolytes toward safe sodium metal batteries

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Abstract

Room-temperature sodium metal batteries with metallic Na anodes and flammable organic solvent-based electrolytes are breeding severe safety concerns. Herein, by introducing non-flammable, highly-fluorinated ethers as bridge solvents, we enable superior miscibility of an all-fluoride fire extinguishant into fluorinated carbonate electrolytes. Besides the intrinsic non-flammability of the designed electrolyte, the embedded PFMP extinguishant further enhances the battery safety by its efficacy to in situ dissipate the internal heat at an elevated temperature (ΔH = +88.1 J g−1). Moreover, the cyclability is greatly improved by using such an electrolyte. The Na/Na symmetrical cells can cycle for 1100 h at 1.0 mA h cm−2 and more than 800 h at 5.0 mA h cm−2. Paired with a high voltage Na3V2(PO4)2O2F cathode, the full cell exhibits a high initial coulombic efficiency of 94.7% and a capacity retention of 87.1% after 1000 cycles at 0.5C, which is mainly ascribed to the thin F-rich interphases established on both the Na metal anode and the cathode.

Graphical abstract: Bridging the immiscibility of an all-fluoride fire extinguishant with highly-fluorinated electrolytes toward safe sodium metal batteries

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Article information


Submitted
05 Mar 2020
Accepted
01 May 2020
First published
01 May 2020

Energy Environ. Sci., 2020, Advance Article
Article type
Paper

Bridging the immiscibility of an all-fluoride fire extinguishant with highly-fluorinated electrolytes toward safe sodium metal batteries

X. Zheng, Z. Gu, X. Liu, Z. Wang, J. Wen, X. Wu, W. Luo and Y. Huang, Energy Environ. Sci., 2020, Advance Article , DOI: 10.1039/D0EE00694G

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