Atomic-scale engineering of chemical-vapor-deposition-grown 2D transition metal dichalcogenides for electrocatalysis
Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is recognized as a powerful tool to synthesize atomically thin two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials with the merits of high quality and uniform thickness with high efficiency, controllability, and scalability. Benefitting from the intriguing electronic and chemical characteristics, 2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have attracted increasing attention with regard to energy-related electrocatalysis, including H2 evolution, CO2 reduction, O2 reduction/evolution, I3− reduction, etc. Atomic-scale tailoring of the surface and interface of CVD-grown TMDs is critical to not only improve the electronic structure and conductivity but also understand the intrinsic nature of the active sites. Therefore, a comprehensive and deeper understanding of CVD-grown 2D TMDs for use in electrocatalysis is urgently needed. In this review, the very recent advances in surface and interface engineering strategies, such as geometric dimensional control, defect engineering, doping modification, phase transition, strain tuning, and heterostructure construction, have been highlighted. Finally, the current challenges and perspectives are discussed. This review aims to provide the profound understanding and design of atomic-scale active sites in 2D TMDs for use in energy electrocatalysis.