Applications of atomic layer deposition and chemical vapor deposition for perovskite solar cells
Metal halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have rapidly evolved over the past decade to become a photovoltaic technology on the cusp of commercialization. In the process, numerous fabrication strategies have been explored with the goal of simultaneously optimizing for device efficiency, stability, and scalability. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) have proven to be effective tools for the fabrication of various components of PSCs. This review article examines the application of ALD and CVD for the deposition and modification of charge transport layers, passivation layers, absorber materials, encapsulants, and electrodes. It outlines the use of these vapor deposition techniques in state-of-the-art, multi-junction solar cell devices, and also contains a discussion of the stability of metal halide perovskite materials under ALD and CVD conditions based on in situ characterization reported in literature. This article concludes with insights into future ALD and CVD research directions that could be undertaken to further aid the deployment of PSCs in emerging solar photovoltaic markets.