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A transversal low-cost pre-metallation strategy enabling ultrafast and stable metal ion capacitor technologies

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Abstract

Metal ion capacitors (MICs) are foreseen to be a complementary alternative of vital importance to current energy storage issues, coupling high energy density delivered by batteries with high power/long cycle life offered by supercapacitors. The prime issues in realising this technology are pre-metallation and replacement of graphite electrodes that bring about an energy gain at the expense of power. Herein we present an easy-to-scale-up approach, combining activated carbon with a highly efficient and industrially compatible low-cost sacrificial salt (dimetal squarates) that can be used as a metal source for pre-metallation. Paired with a hard carbon electrode tailored to perform at high rates, lithium, sodium and potassium MICs are demonstrated. Furthermore, the successful fabrication of a lithium ion capacitor (LIC) pouch cell prototype with high energy at high power densities showing capacitance retention over 84% after 48 000 cycles validates the strategy. This breakthrough may trigger the easy and low-cost fabrication of LICs and significantly reduce technological barriers to market growth and consolidation.

Graphical abstract: A transversal low-cost pre-metallation strategy enabling ultrafast and stable metal ion capacitor technologies

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Article information


Submitted
03 Feb 2020
Accepted
17 Apr 2020
First published
06 May 2020

Energy Environ. Sci., 2020, Advance Article
Article type
Paper

A transversal low-cost pre-metallation strategy enabling ultrafast and stable metal ion capacitor technologies

M. Arnaiz, D. Shanmukaraj, D. Carriazo, D. Bhattacharjya, A. Villaverde, M. Armand and J. Ajuria, Energy Environ. Sci., 2020, Advance Article , DOI: 10.1039/D0EE00351D

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