Flexible metal–gas batteries: a potential option for next-generation power accessories for wearable electronics
Flexible metal–gas batteries have become increasingly attractive for use in wearable electronics in the recent years due to their large theoretical energy density and superior adaptability to irregular geometric surfaces, such as the human body. With continuous improvements in design strategies and assembly technologies, the fabrication of various advanced flexible metal–gas batteries has been attempted. In spite of these efforts, the synchronous integration of high flexibility, safety, comfort, and high performance into flexible metal–gas batteries with specifically functionalized configurations still remains a formidable challenge. To resolve these dilemmas, the redesign of cathode catalysts, gel polymer electrolyte, and battery configurations/components has been investigated. In this paper, we review the recent technical advances together with the major dilemmas facing currently available flexible metal–gas batteries, highlighting how flexible cathodes and gel polymer electrolytes with various structures and components can affect the electrochemical performance and functionality of flexible metal–gas batteries. Flexible Zn–air, Li–O2/air, and Li–CO2 batteries are mainly exemplified to elucidate their promising potential. Finally, based on our considerations, unresolved technical hurdles and future research perspectives involving flexible metal–gas batteries for wearable electronics are proposed.