From metal–organic frameworks to single/dual-atom and cluster metal catalysts for energy applications
Single/dual-atom and cluster metal catalysts, with much higher atom-utilization efficiency, remarkable performance, good recyclability and unique properties, have emerged as a new frontier in energy-related catalysis. In recent years, metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) have demonstrated great potential for the targeted creation of single/dual-atom and cluster catalysts, featuring the distinctive advantages of high metal loadings, porous structures and tailorable catalytic sites. In this review, we discuss the key roles and the critical issues of single/dual-atom and cluster catalysts, and the great opportunities furnished by MOFs for the construction strategy. The accessible characterization techniques for single/dual-atom and cluster catalysts will be showcased. Furthermore, we highlight recent advances in the construction and energy applications of MOF-based single/dual-atom and cluster catalysts by taking advantage of structural features of MOFs. Current issues, promising ideas and future prospects for MOF-based single/dual-atom and cluster catalysts are given.