Towards commercialization of colloidal quantum dot solar cells: perspective on device structures and manufacturing
For a past decade, colloidal quantum dot solar cells (CQD-SCs) have been developed rapidly, reaching over 16% power conversion efficiency. Accompanied by the development of materials engineering (CQD surface chemistry) and device physics (structures and defect engineering), CQD-SCs are moving toward commercialization steps. The overview across the board of the requirements for commercialization is timely imperative. Broad comprehensions about structures engineering, upscaling techniques, stability and manufacturing cost of CQD-SCs are necessary and should be established. In this review, development of the device structures is presented with corresponding charge transfer mechanisms. Then, we overviewed the upscaling methods for mass production of CQD-SCs. The comparison between each upscaling techniques suggests the most advanced process closed to the industrialization. In addition, we have investigated the origin of the photovoltaic (PV) performance degradation. The possible degradation sources are categorized by external environmental factors. Moreover, strategies for improving stability of CQD-SCs are presented. Finally, we have reviewed cost-effectiveness of CQD-SCs in terms of niche PV market. The step-wise manufacturing cost analysis for the commercial CQD-SCs are presented. And, the future direction for environmental-friendly CQD-SCs is discussed.