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Ionogel-based sodium ion micro-batteries with a 3D Na-ion diffusion mechanism enable ultrahigh rate capability

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Abstract

The rapid development of microelectronics and microsystems has stimulated the continuous evolution of high-performance and cost-effective micro-batteries. Despite their competitiveness with huge application potential, sodium ion micro-batteries (NIMBs) are still underdeveloped. Herein, we demonstrate one prototype of a quasi-solid-state planar ionogel-based NIMB constructed by separator-free interdigital microelectrodes of sodium titanate anode and sodium vanadate phosphate cathode, both of which are embedded into a three-dimensional interconnected graphene scaffold. Meanwhile, a novel NaBF4-based ionogel electrolyte with robust ionic conductivity of 8.1 mS cm−1 was used. Benefiting from the synergetic merits from the planar architecture, dominant pseudocapacitance contribution, and 3D multi-directional Na-ion diffusion mechanism, the as-assembled NIMBs exhibit high volumetric capacity of 30.7 mA h cm−3 at 1C, and high rate performance with 15.7 mA h cm−3 at 30C at room temperature and 13.5 mA h cm−3 at 100C at a high temperature of 100 °C. Moreover, the quasi-solid-state NIMBs present outstanding flexibility, tunable voltage and capacity output, and remarkable areal energy density of 145 μW h cm−2 (55.6 mW h cm−3). Therefore, this work will provide numerous chances to construct planar NIMBs for microsystems.

Graphical abstract: Ionogel-based sodium ion micro-batteries with a 3D Na-ion diffusion mechanism enable ultrahigh rate capability

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Article information


Submitted
07 Oct 2019
Accepted
21 Jan 2020
First published
21 Jan 2020

Energy Environ. Sci., 2020, Advance Article
Article type
Communication

Ionogel-based sodium ion micro-batteries with a 3D Na-ion diffusion mechanism enable ultrahigh rate capability

S. Zheng, H. Huang, Y. Dong, S. Wang, F. Zhou, J. Qin, C. Sun, Y. Yu, Z. Wu and X. Bao, Energy Environ. Sci., 2020, Advance Article , DOI: 10.1039/C9EE03219C

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