A universal solution processed interfacial bilayer enabling ohmic contact in organic and hybrid optoelectronic devices†
Optoelectronic devices typically require low-resistance ohmic contacts between the optical active layers and metal electrodes. Failure to make such a contact often results in a Schottky barrier which inhibits charge extraction and, in turn, reduces device performance. Here, we introduce a universal solution processable metal-oxide/organic interfacial bilayer which forms a near-perfect ohmic contact between both organic and inorganic semiconductors and metals. This bilayer comprises a Nb-doped TiO2 metal oxide with enhanced electron mobility and reduced trap density compared to pristine TiO2, in combination with a metal-chelating organic molecule to make an intimate electrical contact with silver metallic electrodes. Using this universal interfacial bilayer, we demonstrate substantial efficiency improvements in organic solar cells (from 9.3% to 12.6% PCE), light emitting diodes (from 0.6 to 2.2 cd W−1) and transistors (from 19.7 to 13.9 V threshold voltage). In particular, a boost in efficiency for perovskite solar cells (from 18.7% up to 20.7% PCE) with up to 83% fill factor is achieved with no-operational lifetime loss for at least 1000 hours under continuous, full-spectrum illumination.