Synthesis, characterization, and electrochemical properties of a first-row metal phthalocyanine series†
The synthesis and characterization of a 3d-metallophthalocyanine series (OEtPcM; OEtPc = 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octaethoxy-phthalocyanine; M = VO, Cr, MnCl, MnN, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn) is presented. With the exception of OEtPcZn, all species were crystallographically characterized, including the protonated (OEtPcH2) and partially lithiated (OEtPcHLi) precursors. The electrochemical behavior of all species – displaying a mix of metal- and ligand-borne redox events – was investigated and tentatively correlated to the structural properties. It was found that non-labile axial metal–ligand substituents (O2−, N3−) and the use of coordinating solvents heavily influenced the reversibility of the electrochemical events, suggesting that aggregation is a dominant consideration for well-defined electrochemical behavior. We used this data to outline possible design criteria for Pc-based charge carrier applications in the context of redox-flow batteries and energy storage.