A review: recent advances in preparations and applications of heteroatom-doped carbon quantum dots
Carbon quantum dots (CQDs) are widely used in optoelectronic catalysis, biological imaging, and ion probes owing to their low toxicity, stable photoluminescence, and ease of chemical modification. However, the low fluorescence yield and monochromatic fluorescence of CQDs limit their practical applications. This review summarizes the commonly used approaches for improving the fluorescence efficiency of CQDs doped with non-metallic (heteroatom) elements. Herein, three types of heteroatom-doped CQDs have been investigated: (1) CQDs doped with a single heteroatom; (2) CQDs doped with two heteroatoms; and (3) CQDs doped with three heteroatoms. The limitations and future perspectives of doped CQDs from the viewpoint of producing CQDs for specific applications, especially for bioimaging and light emitting diodes, have also been discussed herein.