Recent advances in metalloporphyrin-based catalyst design towards carbon dioxide reduction: from bio-inspired second coordination sphere modifications to hierarchical architectures
Research in the development of new molecular catalysts for the selective transformation of CO2 to reduced forms of carbon is attracting enormous interest from chemists. Molecular catalyst design hinges on the elaboration of ligand scaffolds to manipulate the electronic and structural properties for the fine tuning of the reactivity pattern. A cornucopia of ligand sets have been designed along this line and more and more are being reported. In this quest, the porphyrin molecular platform has been under intensive focus due to the unmatched catalytic properties of metalloporphyrins. There have been rapid advances in this particular field during the last few years wherein both electronic and structural aspects in the second coordination spheres have been addressed to shift the overpotential and improve the catalytic rates and product selectivity. Metalloporphyrins have also attracted much attention in terms of the elaboration of hybrid materials for heterogeneous catalysis. Here too, some promising activities have made metalloporphyrin derivatives serious candidates for technological implementation. This review collects the recent advances centred around the chemistry of metalloporphyrins for the reduction of CO2.