Combination of intercalation and surface modification in layered zirconium phosphates: investigation of surface stability and reactivity†
A two-step intercalation and surface modification procedure was used to synthesize heterofunctional zirconium phosphates (ZrP) with different groups in the interlayer and on the surface. The relationship of the interlayer and surface was then investigated through evaluation of the stability and reactivity of heterofunctional ZrP materials by thermal analysis. Intercalated samples were prepared by the ion-exchange mechanism with variation in the loading, charge, and size of ions. An identical epoxide was used to modify the surface in all investigations. It was found that the two-step procedure could be performed in either order to prepare heterofunctional ZrP materials. In both cases, the contents of the interlayer were found to impact the reactivity of the surface and stability of covalently attached surface groups, with higher interlayer loadings leading to decreased stability and reactivity of surface phosphates.