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Issue 22, 2020
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Photocatalytic degradation of ibuprofen using modified titanium oxide supported on CMK-3: effect of Ti content on the TiO2 and carbon interaction

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Abstract

TiO2 nanoparticles dispersed in ordered mesoporous CMK-3 carbon with different Ti contents were successfully synthesized and their activity in the photocatalytic degradation of ibuprofen was presented. The photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms, diffuse reflectance, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM-FEG) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A simple theoretical–computational study through single point energy calculations was also presented. Diffractograms, Raman, and XPS spectra confirmed the formation of anatase and graphitic carbon. Low-angle XRD, N2 physisorption and the TEM images indicated that the CMK-3 support does not undergo a significant change in the mesoporous structure after the insertion of TiO2. The ID/IG ratio observed in the Raman spectra did not vary significantly with an increase in the titanium content, which shows that the crystallinity of CMK-3 is practically unchanged. Anatase crystallite sizes vary from 8 to 15 nm and specific areas vary from 348 to 586 m2 g−1, depending on the TiO2 content. The single point energy calculations confirmed the lowest energy to stabilize the titanium oxide and carbon composite for the sample with 1% of Ti compared to 8 and 18%. The 1% Ti2O/CMK-3 photocatalyst exhibited the best photocatalytic performance, reaching 100% degradation in just 5 min. Chemical oxygen demand and total organic carbon results confirmed the mineralization of ibuprofen. The degradation and mineralization mechanism of ibuprofen follows a sequence of radical reactions that occur in solution and on the solid surface, and may lead to the formation of intermediates before its mineralization.

Graphical abstract: Photocatalytic degradation of ibuprofen using modified titanium oxide supported on CMK-3: effect of Ti content on the TiO2 and carbon interaction

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Supplementary files

Article information


Submitted
09 Jun 2020
Accepted
03 Sep 2020
First published
03 Sep 2020

Catal. Sci. Technol., 2020,10, 7681-7696
Article type
Paper

Photocatalytic degradation of ibuprofen using modified titanium oxide supported on CMK-3: effect of Ti content on the TiO2 and carbon interaction

M. Oliveira Miranda, W. Eulálio Cabral Cavalcanti, F. Ivan da Silva, E. Rigoti, E. Rodríguez-Castellón, S. B. C. Pergher and T. Pinheiro Braga, Catal. Sci. Technol., 2020, 10, 7681
DOI: 10.1039/D0CY01167C

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