New synthetic strategies toward covalent organic frameworks
Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) enable precise reticulation of organic building units into extended 2D and 3D open networks using strong covalent bonds to constitute predesignable topologies and tunable pore structures, presenting an emerging class of crystalline porous polymers. Although rapid progress and substantial achievements in COF chemistry over the past 15 years have been realised, highly efficient strategies and reproducible procedures still play a central role in achieving high-quality COFs and serve as a major driving force for the further advancement of this promising field. In this review, we focused on the key progress in synthesising high-quality COF crystallites and films by highlighting their uniqueness from the viewpoints of synthetic strategies and procedures. We discussed representative synthetic methods including mechanochemical synthesis, microwave synthesis, multicomponent reaction, multistep synthesis and linker exchange strategies to compare their features in producing COFs. We scrutinised the recently developed “two-in-one” molecular design strategy to showcase advantages in optimising synthetic conditions such as catalyst, monomer feeding rate and tolerance to functional groups. We analysed interfacial polymerisation for fabricating various COF films by emphasising their scope and applicability. Moreover, we proposed key underlying challenges to be solved and predicted future frontiers from the perspectives of synthesising high quality crystallites and films that are key to practical applications.
- This article is part of the themed collection: New frontiers in covalent organic frameworks: design and applications