Hybrid superlattices of two-dimensional materials and organics
Two-dimensional (2D) materials have received extensive interest due to their exceptional properties. It is strongly required to assemble 2D materials in bulk quantities for macroscopic applications, but this is highly restricted by the aggregation of 2D materials. Constructing three-dimensional (3D) hybrid superlattices of alternating 2D materials and organic molecule layers provides a new path to access the exceptional properties of 2D materials in bulk quantities. In this tutorial review, the emerging concept of hybrid inorganic/organic superlattices is systematically illustrated. The abundant compositions and the various structures of inorganic and organic sublattices in hybrid superlattices are presented, followed by a summary of the chemical interactions between them. Many facile techniques have been developed for hybrid superlattices, enabling precise control of the structure. There are also various interesting mechanisms inside unique hybrid inorganic/organic superlattices that can help tune the properties, including electron transfer, quantum confinement, interlayer coupling, multiple interface effects, etc. The rich chemistry and abundant mechanisms of these hybrid superlattices can enhance the performance beyond the reach of existing materials, and provide new opportunities in various applications, including rechargeable batteries, catalysis, thermoelectrics, advanced electronics, superconductors, optoelectronics, etc.