Jump to main content
Jump to site search
Access to RSC content Close the message box

Continue to access RSC content when you are not at your institution. Follow our step-by-step guide.

Issue 12, 2020
Previous Article Next Article

Two-dimensional covalent organic frameworks with hierarchical porosity

Author affiliations


Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are a class of crystalline porous organic polymers assembled by connecting organic building units via covalent bonds. They are characterized as extended two-dimensional (2D) or three-dimensional (3D) frameworks with precise spatial structures and building block distribution. A key feature of COFs is their inherent porosity originating from their well-ordered nanopores which are designable, tunable and modifiable through pore engineering. This review describes the pore engineering of 2D COFs based on their framework topologies. It begins with a brief summary of the pore design principles of 2D COFs which are composed of uniform micropores or mesopores. Then the state-of-the-art progress achieved in a new branch of 2D COFs, that is, heteropore COFs, which possess multiple-pore skeletons and thus exhibit hierarchical porosity, is comprehensively reviewed, including their design strategies, synthesis, characterization, properties and applications. In the last part, personal perspectives on this emerging class of 2D polymers with complex structures and hierarchical porosity are discussed.

Graphical abstract: Two-dimensional covalent organic frameworks with hierarchical porosity

Back to tab navigation

Article information

21 Jan 2020
First published
19 May 2020

Chem. Soc. Rev., 2020,49, 3920-3951
Article type
Review Article

Two-dimensional covalent organic frameworks with hierarchical porosity

R. Liang, S. Jiang, R. A and X. Zhao, Chem. Soc. Rev., 2020, 49, 3920
DOI: 10.1039/D0CS00049C

Social activity

Search articles by author