Advances in metal–organic framework coatings: versatile synthesis and broad applications
Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) as a new kind of porous crystalline materials have attracted much interest in many applications due to their high porosity, diverse structures, and controllable chemical structures. However, the specific geometrical morphologies, limited functions and unsatisfactory performances of pure MOFs hinder their further applications. In recent years, an efficient approach to synthesize new composites to overcome the above issues has been achieved, by integrating MOF coatings with other functional materials, which have synergistic advantages in many potential applications, including batteries, supercapacitors, catalysis, gas storage and separation, sensors, drug delivery/cytoprotection and so on. Nevertheless, the systemic synthesis strategies and the relationships between their structures and application performances have not been reviewed comprehensively yet. This review emphasizes the recent advances in versatile synthesis strategies and broad applications of MOF coatings. A comprehensive discussion of the fundamental chemistry, classifications and functions of MOF coatings is provided first. Next, by modulating the different states (e.g. solid, liquid, and gas) of metal ion sources and organic ligands, the synthesis methods for MOF coatings on functional materials are systematically summarized. Then, many potential applications of MOF coatings are highlighted and their structure–property correlations are discussed. Finally, the opportunities and challenges for the future research of MOF coatings are proposed. This review on the deep understanding of MOF coatings will bring better directions into the rational design of high-performance MOF-based materials and open up new opportunities for MOF applications.