Formic acid catalyzed isomerization and adduct formation of an isoprene-derived Criegee intermediate: experiment and theory†
Isoprene is the most abundant non-methane hydrocarbon emitted into the Earth's atmosphere. Ozonolysis is an important atmospheric sink for isoprene, which generates reactive carbonyl oxide species (R1R2CO+O−) known as Criegee intermediates. This study focuses on characterizing the catalyzed isomerization and adduct formation pathways for the reaction between formic acid and methyl vinyl ketone oxide (MVK-oxide), a four-carbon unsaturated Criegee intermediate generated from isoprene ozonolysis. syn-MVK-oxide undergoes intramolecular 1,4 H-atom transfer to form a substituted vinyl hydroperoxide intermediate, 2-hydroperoxybuta-1,3-diene (HPBD), which subsequently decomposes to hydroxyl and vinoxylic radical products. Here, we report direct observation of HPBD generated by formic acid catalyzed isomerization of MVK-oxide under thermal conditions (298 K, 10 torr) using multiplexed photoionization mass spectrometry. The acid catalyzed isomerization of MVK-oxide proceeds by a double hydrogen-bonded interaction followed by a concerted H-atom transfer via submerged barriers to produce HPBD and regenerate formic acid. The analogous isomerization pathway catalyzed with deuterated formic acid (D2-formic acid) enables migration of a D atom to yield partially deuterated HPBD (DPBD), which is identified by its distinct mass (m/z 87) and photoionization threshold. In addition, bimolecular reaction of MVK-oxide with D2-formic acid forms a functionalized hydroperoxide adduct, which is the dominant product channel, and is compared to a previous bimolecular reaction study with normal formic acid. Complementary high-level theoretical calculations are performed to further investigate the reaction pathways and kinetics.
- This article is part of the themed collection: 2020 PCCP HOT Articles