In situ observation of charge transfer and crystal field formation via high energy resolution X-ray spectroscopy during temperature programmed oxidation
Herein, it has been demonstrated how resonant X-ray emission spectroscopy can be employed to study the charge transfer dynamics in real-time during the temperature-induced oxidation of metallic tungsten. Application of high energy resolution schemes allowed distinguishing charge transfer to separate orbitals resulting from crystal field splitting. Based on the time-resolved studies, it was possible to determine the corresponding charge transfer rates. From the experimental data, we determined that the electron transfer during the thermal oxidation of the metal dominates in the temperature range of 470–570 °C, reaching a maximum of 0.036 electrons per °C.