Solvent similarity index†
The Solvent Similarity Index (SSI) is a quantitative parameter we introduce for the comparison of the solvation properties of any solvent or solvent mixture. The Surface Site Interaction Model for Liquids at Equilibrium (SSIMPLE) was used to calculate the free energy of solvation of a single Surface Site Interaction Point (SSIP) on a solute. The SSIP representation of molecular surfaces was used to calculate the free energy of solvation for all possible solute polarities, generating a unique solvation profile for any solvent or solvent mixture. Quantitative comparison of the solvation profiles of two solvents was used as the basis for calculating the solvation similarity index. Values of SSI were calculated for all pairwise comparisons of 261 pure solvents at 298 K, and the results were used to classify solvents into groups according to their solvation properties. Applications to understanding the solvation properties of binary solvent mixtures and for identification of alternative solvents are illustrated.