Fluorescence upconversion by triplet–triplet annihilation in all-organic poly(methacrylate)-terpolymers†
Fluorescence upconversion by triplet–triplet annihilation is demonstrated for a fully polymer-integrated material, i.e. in the limit of restricted diffusion. Organic sensitizer and acceptor are covalently attached to a poly(methacrylate) backbone, yielding a metal-free macromolecular all-in-one system for fluorescence upconversion. Due to the spatial confinement of the optically active molecular components, i.e. annihilator and sensitizer, UC by TTA in the constrained polymer system in solution is achieved at exceptionally low averaged annihilator concentrations. However, the UC quantum yield in the investigated systems is found to be low, highlighting that only chromophores in specific local surroundings yield upconversion in the limit of restricted diffusion. A photophysical model is proposed taking the heterogeneous local environment within the polymers into account.