Cooperative Effects of Na+ and Citrates on the Dissolution of Calcium Oxalate Crystals
Precipitation and dissolution of calcium oxalate monohydrate (CaOx) crystals are relevant due to their major role in kidney stone diseases. To such an extent, small molecules and ions can act as inhibitor to prevent the formation of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals. Herein, we explored the role of citrate and the counter cation Na+ ions on the dissolution of CaOx crystals. Citrate binds on the Ca2+ sites of the CaOx crystals to form calcium citrate. Dissolution of CaOx increases with the increase in the concentration of citrate ions and time of incubation. We observed, corrugations were formed on the surface of the CaOx crystals after the sodium citrate treatment during the dissolution process. Theoretical studies revealed the Na+ occupies the vacant site of Ca2+ in CaOx makes a strain on the surface and subsequent deformation of the crystal.