Elucidating the multi-configurational character of the firefly dioxetanone anion and its prototypes in the biradical region using full valence active spaces
We analyzed the near-degenerate states of the firefly dioxetanone anion (FDO−) and its prototypes, especially in the biradical region, using multi-configurational approaches. The importance of utilizing full valence active spaces by means of density-matrix renormalization group self-consistent field (DMRG-SCF) calculations was described. Our results revealed that the neglect of some valence orbitals can affect the quantitative accuracy in later multi-reference calculations or the qualitative conclusion when optimizing conical intersections. Using all of the relevant valence orbitals of FDO−, we confirmed that there were two conical intersections, as reported in previous work, and that the intersecting states were changed when the active space was enlarged. Beyond these, we found that there were strong interactions between states in the biradical regions, in which the changes in entanglements can be used to visualize the interacting state evolution.