Seeded growth of high-quality transition metal dichalcogenide single crystals via chemical vapor transport
Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are van der Waals layered materials with sizable and tunable bandgaps, offering promising platforms for two-dimensional electronics and optoelectronics. To this end, the bottleneck is how to acquire high-quality single crystals in a facile and efficient manner. As one of the most widely employed method of single-crystal growth, conventional chemical vapor transport (CVT) generally encountered problems including the excess nucleation that leads to small crystal clusters and slow growth rate. To address these issues, a seed crystal is introduced to suppress the nucleation and an inner tube is adopted as both a separator and a flow restrictor, favoring the growth of large-size and high-quality TMD single crystals successfully. Three examples are presented, the effective growth of millimeter-sized MoSe2 and MoTe2 single crystals, and the greatly shortened growth period for PtSe2 single crystal, all of which are synthesized in high quality according to detailed characterizations. The mechanism of seeded CVT is discussed. Furthermore, a phototransistor based on exfoliated multi-layered MoSe2 displays excellent photoresponse in ambient conditions, and considerably rapid rise and fall time of 110 and 125 µs are obtained, which might be contributed by the good crystallinity of the as-grown crystal. This work paves the way for developing a facile and versatile method to synthesize high-quality TMD single crystals in laboratory.