Research progress on the preparation methods for VO2 nanoparticles and their application in smart windows
Accompanied with drastic changes in photoelectric properties, vanadium dioxide (VO2) exhibits a first order metal–insulator phase transition (MIT) at the temperature of about 68 °C. This excellent thermochromic property of VO2 gives it high potential as a material for application in smart windows. VO2 nanoparticles have been extensively studied due to their unique size effect and grain boundary conditions, which can effectively reduce the temperature of the metal–insulator phase transition (MIT) and hysteresis widths and improve the thermochromic properties of materials. Herein, the preparation of VO2 nanoparticles via the solution method, sputtering method, PLD deposition method and gas phase method is reviewed and also the advantages and disadvantages of the various preparation methods are compared and analyzed, which demonstrate that the solution method is the most suitable industrial preparation method. Moreover, the recent progress in the application of VO2 nanoparticle films in smart coatings is reviewed, and the possible research directions of VO2 nanoparticles in the future are briefly discussed.