Emerging interfacial chemistry of graphite anodes in lithium-ion batteries
Understanding the electrode/electrolyte interfacial chemistry is the cornerstone of designing lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) with superior performance. Graphite has been exclusively utilized as the anode material since the birth of LIBs, whose interfacial chemistry has a profound impact on battery life and power delivery. However, current understanding of the graphite/electrolyte interface is at the preliminary stage because of its intricate nature, which has driven unremitting explorations and breakthroughs in the past decades. On one hand, the applications of emerging experimental and computational tools have led researchers to re-examine several decades-old problems, such as the underlying mechanism of solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation and the co-intercalation mystery. On the other hand, from anion-derived interfacial chemistry to artificial interphases, novel interfacial chemistry for graphite are being proposed to replace the traditional ethylene carbonate-derived SEI for better performances. By summarizing the latest advances on these emerging interfacial chemistry of graphite anodes in LIBs, this review affords a fresh perspective on interface science and engineering towards next-generation energy storage devices.