Particulate kidney extracellular matrix: bioactivity and proteomic analysis of a novel scaffold from porcine origin†
Decellularized matrices are attractive substrates, being able to retain growth factors and proteins present in the native tissue. Several biomaterials can be produced by processing these matrices. However, new substrates capable of being injected that reverse local kidney injuries are currently scarce. Herein, we hypothesized that the decellularized particulate kidney porcine ECM (pKECM) could support renal progenitor cell cultures for posterior implantation. Briefly, kidneys are cut into pieces, decellularized by immersion on detergent solutions, lyophilized and reduced into particles. Then, ECM particles are analyzed for nuclear material remaining by DNA quantification and histological examination, molecular conformation by FITR and structural morphology by SEM. Protein extraction is also optimized for posterior identification and quantification by mass spectrometry. The results obtained confirm the collagenous structure and composition of the ECM, the effective removal of nucleic material and the preservation of ECM proteins with great similarity to human kidneys. Human renal progenitor cells (hRPCs) are seeded in different ratios with pKECM, on 3D suspensions. The conducted assays for cell viability, proliferation and distribution over 7 days of culture suggest that these matrices as biocompatible and bioactive substrates for hRPCs. Also, by analyzing CD133 expression, an optimal ratio for specific phenotypic expression is revealed, demonstrating the potential of these substrates to modulate cellular behavior. The initial hypothesis of developing and characterizing a particulate ECM biomaterial as a consistent substrate for 3D cultures is successfully validated. The findings in this manuscript suggest these particles as valuable tools for regenerative nephrology by minimizing surgeries and locally reversing small injuries which can lead to chronic renal disfunction.