Tuning surface topographies on biomaterials to control bacterial infection
Microbial contamination and subsequent formation of biofilms frequently cause failure of surgical implants and a good understanding of the bacteria–surface interactions is vital to the design and safety of biomaterials. In this review, the physical and chemical factors that are involved in the various stages of implant-associated bacterial infection are described. In particular, topographical modification strategies that have been employed to mitigate bacterial adhesion via topographical mechanisms are summarized and discussed comprehensively. Recent advances have improved our understanding about bacteria–surface interactions and have enabled biomedical engineers and researchers to develop better and more effective antibacterial surfaces. The related interdisciplinary efforts are expected to continue in the quest for next-generation medical devices to attain the ultimate goal of improved clinical outcomes and reduced number of revision surgeries.
- This article is part of the themed collection: Antibacterial Biomaterials