Construction and application of the textile-based tissue engineering scaffold: A review
Tissue engineering (TE) provides a practicable method for tissue and organ repair or substitution. As the most important component of TE, scaffold plays a critical role in providing a growing environment for cell proliferation and functional differentiation as well as a good mechanical support. And the restorative effects are greatly dependent upon the nature of scaffold including composition, morphology, structure, and mechanical performance. Medical textiles have been widely employed in the clinic for a long time and are being extensively investigated in TE scaffold. However, unfortunately, the advantages of textile technology cannot be fully exploited in tissue regeneration due to the ignoring of the diversity of fabric structures. Therefore, this review focuses on textile-based scaffold, emphasizing the significance of the fabric designing and the resultant characteristics on cell behavior and extracellular matrix reconstruction. The structure and mechanical behavior of the fabrics constructed by various textile techniques for different tissue repairs were summarized. Furthermore, the prospect of structural design on TE scaffolds preparation was anticipated, including the profiled fibers and some unique and complex textile structures. Hopefully, the readers of this review would appreciate the importance of structural design on scaffold and the usefulness of textile-based TE scaffolds for tissue regeneration.