A robust hybrid nanozyme@hydrogel platform as a biomimetic cascade bioreactor for combination antitumor therapy†
The development of highly effective and minimally invasive approaches for cancer treatment is the ultimate goal. Herein, an injectable hybrid hydrogel as a biomimetic cascade bioreactor is designed for combination antitumor therapy by providing spatiotemporally-controlled and long-term delivery of therapeutic agents. This hybrid nanozyme@hydrogel (hPB@gellan) is doped with Prussian blue (PB) nanoparticles via the in situ nanoprecipitation method in the polysaccharide gellan matrix. The obtained PB nanoparticles have a small size of 10 nm and play dual roles as a photothermal agent with a photothermal conversion efficiency of 59.6% and as a nanozyme to decompose hydrogen peroxide into oxygen. By incorporating glucose oxidase (GOD) into the hybrid hydrogel, a cascade bioreactor is formed for PB-promoted glucose consumption. Owing to its shear-thinning and self-recovery properties, the hybrid hydrogel is locally administered into tumors, and shows long-term resistance against body clearance and metabolism. The in vivo antitumor results demonstrate that the tumors in the group of combined photothermal and starvation therapy (GOD/hPB@gellan + NIR) are greatly eliminated with a tumor suppression rate of 99.7% 22 days after the treatment. The outstanding antitumor performance is attributed to the main attack by NIR-triggered hyperthermia and the holding attack by GOD-mediated starvation from the catalytic bioreactor of the hybrid hydrogel. Taking into consideration the advantages of biosafety, simple synthetic approaches and facile manipulation in treatment, the hybrid hydrogel has great potential for clinical translation.