Disposable biogenic amine biosensors for histamine determination in fish
This study presents the development of disposable biosensors employed in the determination of histamine in fish sample. Screen printed carbon electrodes (SPCE) were first modified with a mixture of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2), carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (c-MWCNT), hexaammineruthenium (III) chloride (RU) and chitosan (CS). Diamine oxidase (DAO) or monoamine oxidase (MAO) enzymes were further immobilized onto TiO2−c-MWCNT−RU−CS/SPCE via 1‐ethyl‐3‐(dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimidehydrochloride (EDC) and hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) chemistry for the fabrication of the biosensors. The morphological and electrochemical properties of the proposed biosensors were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). A performance comparison of two biosensors indicated that the one based on DAO had a linear concentration range from 9.9×10-6 – 1.1×10-3 M and the other based on MAO from 5.6×10-5–1.1×10-3 M for histamine. The sensitivity of the DAO based biosensor was almost 1.5 times higher than that of the MAO based biosensor. The proposed biosensors were successfully employed to determine histamine in fish sample and the recoveries were between 100.0% and 104.6%.