Dispersive micro-solid phase extraction based on a graphene/polydopamine composite for the detection of pyrethroids in water samples
In this study, a simple, rapid, precise, and environmentally friendly microextraction named dispersive micro-solid phase extraction based on a graphene/polydopamine composite as a sorbent was investigated for the analysis of four pyrethroids (fenpropathrin, cyhalothrin, etofenprox and bifenthrin) in water samples. The graphene/polydopamine composite was successfully synthesized using a one-step method, and was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The simplicity and rapidity of dispersive micro-solid phase extraction and the high surface area and adsorptivity of the graphene/polydopamine composite were combined in the proposed method. Several main parameters, including the amount of the sorbent, extraction time, ionic strength and desorption conditions, were independently optimized and the results were compared to find the best extraction setup for dispersive micro-solid phase extraction. Under the optimal conditions, good linearity was observed for all the target analytes, with the coefficient of determination ranging from 0.9997 to 0.9999. The extraction recoveries obtained using the proposed method ranged from 76.81% to 85.29%, and the limits of detection varied from 1.5 to 3 μg L−1. In addition, the relative standard deviation values for the intra-day precision were between 0.41% and 3.00%, while the inter-day precision showed relative standard deviation values ranging from 1.61% to 5.59%. Overall, the figures of merit of the entire procedure showed that this technique could produce satisfactory results in the detection of pyrethroids in water samples or other organic pollutants in the future.